tap density

tap density
the density of a powder when the volume receptacle is tapped or vibrated under specified conditions while being loaded. Each particle of a solid material has the same true density after grinding, milling or processing, but more geometric space is occupied by the material. In other words, the geometric density is less... approaching 50% less than true density if the particles are spherical. Handling or vibration of powdered material causes the smaller particles to work their way into the spaces between the larger particles. The geometric space occupied by the powder decreases and its density increases. Ultimately no further natural particle packing can be measured without the addition of pressure. Maximum particle packing is achieved. Under controlled conditions of tap rate, tap force (fall) and cylinder diameter, the condition of maximum packing efficiency is highly reproducible. This tap density measurement is formalized in the British Pharmacopoeia method for Apparent Volume, ISO 787/11 and ASTM standard test methods B527, D1464 and D4781 for tap density.

Mechanics glossary. 2013.

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